Medical Literature

Medical literature on the health care needs of trafficking victims, tools for identifying trafficked persons, and the role of physicians in fighting trafficking continues to grow. Here, we gather up-to-date peer-reviewed literature from Pub Med and highlight articles that have advanced anti-trafficking efforts among health professionals.

You can peruse the whole list or narrow it by selecting one of the topics at the bottom of the page. To suggest a publication, please follow the link to the “Suggest an Article” page and complete the form here.


Armstrong, S.  (2017).   Instruments to identify commercially sexually exploited children: Feasibility of use in an Emergency Department setting.  Pediatric Emergency Care.

Powell, C., Dickins, K., & Stoklosa, H.  (2017).  Training US health care professionals on human trafficking: where do we go from here?  Medical Education Online, 22(1).

Todres, J., & Wolf, L.E. (2017).  The complexities of conducting research on child trafficking. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(1), 9-10. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3532

Contreras, P. M., Kallivayalil, D., &  Herman, J. L. (2017). Psychotherapy in the aftermath of human trafficking: Working through the consequences of psychological coercion.  Women & Therapy, 40, 1-2, 31-54. doi: 10.1080/02703149.2016.1205908


McAlpine, A., Hossain, M., & Zimmerman, C.  (2016).  Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: Systematic review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 16(34).  DOI 10.1186/s12914-016-0107-x

Pocock, N., Kiss, L., Oram, S., & Zimmerman, C.  Labour trafficking among men and boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, violence, occupational health risks and injuries. PLoS ONE, 11(12), e0168500. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168500

Cosgrove, C.  Increasing awareness about human trafficking: Education for frontline healthcare providers. (2016). Master of Public Health Thesis and Capstone Presentations. Presentation 198.

Doherty, S., Oram, S., Siriwardhana, C., & Abas, M.  (2016).  Suitability of measurements used to assess mental health outcomes in men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation: A systematic review.  Lancet Psychiatry, 3(5), 464-71.

Borschmann, R., Oram, S., Kinner, S. A., Dutta, R., Zimmerman, C., & Howard, L. M.  (2016). Self-Harm among adult victims of human trafficking who accessed secondary mental health services in England. Psychiatric Services.

Stewart, D. E.  (2016).  Mental health and human trafficking.  Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25(4), 342-44.

George, E., McNaughton, D.,  & Tsourtos, G.  (2016).  An interpretive analysis of Australia’s approach to human trafficking and its focus on criminal justice over public health.  Journal of Human Trafficking. 

Ronda-Perez, E., & La Parra, D.  (2016).  Eradicating human trafficking: a social and public health policy priority.  Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25(4), 347-348.

Stoklosa, H., Dawson, M. B., Williams-Oni, F., & Rothman, E.  (2016).  A review of U.S. health care institution protocols for the identification and treatment of victims of human trafficking. Journal of Human Trafficking, 1-9. 

Barnert, E. S., Abrams, S., Azzi, V. F., Ryan, G., Brook, R., & Chung, P. J. (2016). Identifying best practices for “Safe Harbor” legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient. Child Abuse & Neglect, 51, 249-262.

Gorman, K. W., & Hatkevich, B. A. (2016). The Issue is—Role of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70, 7006360010.

Stoklosa, H., Showalter, E., Melnick, A.,  & Rothman, E.  (2016).  Health care providers’ experience with a protocol for the identification, treatment, and referral of human trafficking victims. Journal of Human Trafficking, 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/23322705.2016.1194668.

Westwood, J., Howard, L.M., Stanley, S., Zimmerman, C., Gerada, C., & Oram, S.  Access to, and experiences of, healthcare services by trafficked people: Findings from a mixed-methods study in England.  British Journal of General Practice, 66(652), e794-e801.

Chisolm-Straker, M., Baldwin, S., Gaigbe-Togbe, B., Ndukwe, N., Johnson, P. N., & Richardson, L. D. (2016).  Health care and human trafficking: We are seeing the unseen. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(3), 1220-1233. DOI: 10.1353/hpu.2016.0131

Gibbons, P., & Stoklosa, H. (2016). Identification and treatment of human trafficking victims in the emergency department: A case report. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 50(5), 715-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2016.01.004

Manton, A. (2016). Human trafficking and the emergency nurse. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 42(2), 99-100.

Oram, S., Abas, M., Bick, D., Boyle, A., French, R., Jakobowitz, S., Khondoker, M., Stanley, N. Trevillion, K., Howard, L., & Zimmerman, C. (2016). Human trafficking and health: A survey of male and female survivors in England. American Journal of Public Health, 106(6), 1073-1078.

Ottisova, L., Hemmings, S., Howard, L. M., Zimmerman, C., & Oram, S. (2016). Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: An updated systematic review. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 1-25.

Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2016). Trafficking in persons: Q&A with Dr. Donna Sabella. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 12(1), 1-4.

Shandro, J., Chisolm-Straker, M., Duber, H. C., Findlay, S. L., Munoz, J., Schmitz, G., Stanzer, M.,  Stoklosa, H., Wiener, D. E., & Wingkun, N. (2016). Human trafficking: A guide to identification and approach for the emergency physician. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 1-8.

Hemmings, S., Jakobwitz, S., Abas, M., Bick, D., Howard, L. M., Stanley, N., Zimmerman, C., & Oram, S.  (2016).  Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: A systematic review.  BMC Health Services Research, 16(320).  DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1538-8

Titchen, K. E., Douglas, K., Martinez, K., & White, K. (2016). Ovarian Cystadenoma in a trafficked patient. Pediatrics, 137(5), e1-e5.

Willis, B., Vines, D., Bubar, S., & Suchard, M. R. (2016). The health of children whose mothers are trafficked or in sex work in the U.S.: An exploratory study. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(2), 127-135.


Johnston, A., Friedman, B., & Sobel, M. (2015). Framing an emerging issue: How US print and broadcast news media covered sex trafficking, 2008–2012Journal of Human Trafficking1(3), 235-254.

Domoney, J., Howard, L. M., Abas, M., Broadbent, M., & Oram, S.  (2015).  Mental health service responses to human trafficking: a qualitative study of professionals’ experiences of providing care.  BMC Psychiatry, 15(289), 1-9.

Burke, M., McCauley, H. L., Rackow, A., Orsini, B., Simunovic, B., & Miller, E. (2015). Implementing a Coordinated Care Model for Sex Trafficked Minors in Smaller Cities. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 6(1), 7.

“Medical Education on Human Trafficking.” Stoklosa, Hanni, Aimee M. Grace, and Nicole Littenberg. AMA journal of ethics 17.10 (2015): 914-921.

“Supporting the mental health of trafficked people.” Lancet Psychiatry. Goldenberg SM. 16th Oct. 2015

“Human Trafficking of Children and Adolescents: A Global Phenomenon With Horrific Health Consequences.”English A. JAMA Pediatr. 2015.

“Exploitation, violence, and suicide risk among child and adolescent survivors of human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion”Ligia Kiss, Katherine Yun, Nicola Pocock, Cathy Zimmerman

“Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking.” Ross, C., Dimitrova, S., Howard, L.M., et al. BMJ. 2015.

“An Introduction to Health Professionals’ Role in Addr,essing Human Trafficking.” Golby, R., Tsuei, S.H., Zacharias, A.U. UBCMJ. 6(2):28-30. 2015.

“Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States.” Varma, Selina et al. The International Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect. 44: 98-105. April 2015.

“Domestic sex trafficking of minors: medical student and physician awareness.”  Titchen, Kanani E. et al. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. May 2015.

“Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.” Viergever, Roderik F., West, Haley; Borland, Rosilyne; and Zimmerman, Cathy. Frontiers in Public Health. January 2015.

“Trafficking, migration, and health: complexities and future directions.” Goldenberg, Shira M.The Lancet Global Health. 3 (3):118 -119. March 2015

“Human Sex Trafficking: Recognition, Treatment and Referral of Pediatric Victims.” Ernewein, Charrita; Nieves, Rose. Journal for Nurse Practioners. July 2015.

The Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the Boston Metropolitan Area: Experiences and Challenges Faced by Front-Line Providers and Other Stakeholders.”  Macias-Konstantopoulos W, Munroe D, Purcell G, Tester K, Burke TF, Ahn R. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 6 (1). 2015.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.” Bounds D, Julion WA, Delaney KR. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2015 Apr 23. E-published ahead of print.

Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study.” Kiss, L, Pocock, N, Naisanguansri, V, Suos, S, Dickson, B, Thuy, D, Koehler, J, Sirisup, K, Pongrungsee, N, Nguyen, VA, Borland, R, Dhavan, P, Zimmerman, C. The Lancet Global Health, 3 (3): 154-161. March 2015.

Medical Providers’ Understanding of Sex Trafficking and Their Experience With At-Risk Patients.” Beck, M, Lineer, M, Melzer-Lange, M, Simpson, P, Nugent, M, Rabbitt, A. Pediatrics. March 2015.

The public health crisis of child sex abuse in low and middle income countries: An integrative review of the literature.” Veenema TG, Thornton CP, Corley A. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52 (4): 864-881.

Recognizing Victims of Human Trafficking in the Pediatric Emergency Department.” Becker, HJ, Bechtel, K. Pediatric Emergency Care, 31 (2): 144-147. February, 2015.

Trafficking of Women in Mexico and Their Health Risk: Issues and Problems.” Acharya, Arun Kumar. Journal of Social Inclusion, 3 (1). 2015.

Using a Clinic-based Screening Tool for Primary Care Providers to Identify Commercially Sexually Exploited Children.” Chang, K, Lee, K, Park T, Sy, E, Quach, T. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 6 (1). 2015.

Choi, K. (2016). Risk factors for domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States: A literature review. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 11(2), 66-76.

Coverdale, J., Beresin, E. V., Louie, A. K., Balon, R., & Roberts, L. W.  (2015). Human trafficking and psychiatric education: A call to action.  Academic Psychiatry, 40(1), 119-123.

Oram, S., Khondoker, M., Abas, M., Broadbent, M., & Howard, L. M. (2015). Characteristics of trafficked adults and children with severe mental illness: A historical cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry, 2(12), 1084-1091.


“Assisting Victims of Human Trafficking: Strategies to Facilitate Identification, Exit from Trafficking, and the Restoration of Wellness.” Hodge, D. Social Work, 59(2), 111-118. 2014.

“Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman’s Framework.” Baldwin, Susan B., Fehrenbacher, Anne E. , Eisenman, David P.Qual. Health. Res. 1-11. Published Online 4 November 2014.

“Combating Trafficking in Persons: A Call to Action for Global Health Professionals.” CdeBaca, L., Sigmon, J. N. Global Health: Science and Practice, (3): 261-267. 2014.

Commentary: There is Hope: CSEC and the Medical Community.” Mays, A. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. Volume 44, Issue 9, 272-273.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation – A Survivor’s Perspective: ‘Can You Help Me?’ ” Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, Volume 44, Issue 9, 270-271. 2014.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States.”Greenbaum, J. V. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, Volume 44, Issue 9, 245-269. 2014.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors.” Diaz, A., Wright Clayton, E., Krugman, R. D., Simon, P.JAMA Pediatrics, Volume 168, Issue 9, 791-792.

Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking.” Grace AM, Lippert S, Collins K, Pineda N, Tolani A, Walker R, Jeong M, Trounce MB, Graham-Lamberts C, Bersamin M, Martinez J, Dotzler J, Vanek J, Storfer-Isser A, Chamberlain LJ, Horwitz SM. Pediatric Emergency Care. Volume 30 (12):856-61. December 2014.

The Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking and Their Implications for Identifying Victims in Healthcare Facilities.”Lederer, L., Wetzel, C. A. Annals of Health Law, Volume 23, Issue 1, 61-91. 2014.

Health Implications of Human Trafficking.” Richards, T. A. Nursing for Women’s Health, Volume 18, Issue 2, 155-162.

Integrating Curricula on Human Trafficking Into Medical Education and Residency Training.”Grace, A. M., Ahn, R., Konstantopoulos, W. M. JAMA Pediatrics, Volume 168, Issue 9, 793-794. 2014.

Labour Exploitation and Health: A Case Series of Men and Women Seeking Post-Trafficking Services.” Turner-Moss, E., Zimmerman, C., Howard, L.M., Oram, S.  Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Volume 16, Issue 3, 473-480.

Responding to the Sexual Exploitation of Minors.” Todres, J. D., Wright Clayton, E. NEJM, Volume 370, Issue 14, 1282-1283.

Three Bills to Prevent Sex Trafficking.”Slomski, A. JAMA, Volume 311, Issue 22, 2264. 2014.

Bespalova, N., Morgan, J., & Coverdale, J. (2014). A pathway to freedom: An evaluation of screening tools for the identification of trafficking victims. Academic Psychiatry, 40(1), 124-128.


“How do social determinants affect human trafficking in Southeast Asia, and what can we do about it? A systematic review.” Perry, K.M., McEwing, L. Health Hum Rights. 2013; 16(2).

“The Fight Against Human Trafficking.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. Ahn R, McGahan A, Konstantopoulos WM, et al. 17-19. 2013.

Associations of sex trafficking history with recent sexual risk among HIV-infected FSWs in India.” Silverman JG, Saggurti N, Cheng DM, Decker MR, Coleman SM, Bridden C, Pardeshi M, Dasgupta A, Samet JH, Raj A. AIDS and Behavior, Volume 18, Issue 3, 555-561.

Child sex trafficking in the emergency department: opportunities and challenges.” Miller CL. Journal of Emergency Nursing, Volume 39, Issue 5, 477-8. 2013.

Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the United States: a closer look.”Muftic LR, Finn MA. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Volume 28, Issue 9, 1859-85. 2013.

Human Trafficking: Review of Educational Resources for Health Professionals.” Ahn, R., Alpert, E. J., Purcell, G., Konstantopoulos, W. M., McGahan, A., Cafferty, E., Eckardt, M., Conn, K. L., Cappetta, K., Burke, T. F. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Volume 44. Issue 3, 283-289. 2013.

An International Comparative Public Health Analysis of Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Eight Cities: Achieving A More Effective Health Sector Response.” Konstantopoulos, M. W., Ahn, R., Alpert, E. J., Cafferty E., McGahan, A., Williams, T. P., Castor, J. P., Wolferstan, N., Purcell, G., Burke, T. F. Journal of Urban Health, Volume 90, Issue 6, 1194-1204. 2013.

Primary Care Management of Non-English-Speaking Refugees Who Have Experiences Trauma.” Crosby, S. S. JAMA, Volume 310, Issue 5, 519-528. 2013.

Risk Factors for Mental Disorders in Women Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Historical Cohort Study.” Abas, M., Ostrovschi, N. V., Prince, M., Gorceag, V. I., Trigub, C., Oram, S.  BMC Psychiatry, Volume 13, Issue 204. 2013.

Sex trafficking, sex work, and violence: Evidence for a new era.” Decker MR. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. Volume 120, Issue 2, 113-4. 2013.

Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls.”Deshpande, N. A., Nour, N. M. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Volume 6, Issue 1, 22-27. 2013.

Trauma and Its Aftermath for Commercially Sexually Exploited Women as Told by Front-Line Service Providers.” Hom, K. A., Woods, S. J. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Volume 34, Issue 2, 75-81. 2013.


Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision.” Macy, R.J, Graham, L.M. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2012 Apr;13(2):59-76.

“Chisolm-Straker M; Richardson LD; Cossio T. Combating Slavery in the 21st Century: The Role of Emergency Medicine.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Vol. 23, No. 3, August 2012.

“Human trafficking: A call for heightened awareness and advocacy by obstetrician-gynecologists.” Tracy E, Konstantopoulos WM. Obstetrics & Gynecology.119 (5): 1045-1047. 2012.

Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors.” Oram S, Ostrovschi NV, Gorceag VI, Hotineanu MA, Gorceag L, Trigub C, Abas M. BMC Women’s Health. Volume 26, Issue 12, 20. 2012.

Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental, and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review.” Oram, S., Stockl H., Busza, J., Howard, L. M., Zimmerman, C. PLOS Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 5, 1001224. 2012.


“Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.” McClain, N.M., Garrity, S.E. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2011;1:1–10. 3.

“Health Care Providers’ Training Needs Related to Human Trafficking: Maximizing the Opportunity to Effectively Screen and Intervene,” Isaac, Reena; Solak, Jennifer; and Giardino, Angelo P. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 8. 2011.

“Human Trafficking: What is the Role of the Health Care Provider?” Crane, Patricia A. and Moreno, Melissa. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 7. 2011.

“Empowering Medical Professionals to Help Victims of Trafficking,” Miller, Aaron. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Vol. 2: Iss. 1, Article 14. 2011

“History of sex trafficking, recent experiences of violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in coastal.” Gupta, J., Reed, E., Kershaw, T., Blankenship, K.M. Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet.114(2):101–5. 2011.

“Human trafficking: An evaluation of Canadian medical students’ awareness and attitudes.” Wong JC, Hong J, Leung P, Yin P, Stewart DE. Education for Health. 24(1):1-10. 2011.

Human trafficking: a call for heightened awareness and advocacy by obstetrician-gynecologists.” Tracy, E.E., Konstantopoulos, W.M. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 119, Issue 5, 1045-7. 2011.

Human Trafficking and Health: A Conceptual Model to Inform Policy, Intervention and Research.” Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., Watts, C. Social Science and Medicine, Volume 73, Issue 2, 327-335. 2011.

Identification of Human Trafficking Victims in Health Care Settings.” Baldwin, S. B., Eisenman, D. P., Sayles, J. N., Ryan, G., Chuang, K. S. Health and Human Rights, Volume 13, Issue 1, 36-49. 2011.

International law, national policy-making, and the health of trafficked people in the UK.” Oram, S., Zimmerman, C., Adams, B., Busza, J. Health and Human Rights, Volume 13, Issue 3, 16. 2011.

The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.” Sabella D. American Journal of Nursing, Volume 111, Issue 2, 28-39. 2011.

Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India. ” Silverman JG, Raj A, Cheng DM, Decker MR, Coleman S, Bridden C, Pardeshi M, Saggurti N, Samet JH. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 204, S1229-34. 2011.


“Who is in your waiting room?” Reesey, A.P. EMPulse, Florida College of Emergency Physicians. 15(4):18–9.
10. 2010.

“Human trafficking and what you should know.” Thompson, R. EMPulse, Florida Coll Emer Phys. 15(4):15–7.
11. 2010.

“Human trafficking in the emergency department.” Patel, R.B., Ahn, R.; Burke, T.F. West. J. Emerg. Med. 11(5):402– 4.2010.

HIV and Human Trafficking-Related Stigma: Health Interventions for Trafficked Populations.” Vijeyarasa, R. JAMA, Volume 304, Issue 3, 344-345. 2010.

Human Trafficking in Europe.” Stephenson, J. JAMA, Volume 304, Issue 5, 513. 2010.

Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider.” Dovydaitis, T. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, Volume 55, Issue 5, 462-467.

The Relationship of Trauma to Mental Disorders Among Trafficked and Sexually Exploited Girls and Women.” Hossain, M., Zimmerman, C., Abas, M., Light, M., Watts, C. American Journal of Public Health, Volume 100, Issue 12, 2442-2449. 2010.

Sex trafficking and health care in metro Manila: identifying social determinants to inform an effective health system response.” Williams TP, Alpert EJ, Ahn R, Cafferty E, Konstantopoulos WM, Wolferstan N, JP Castor, McGahan AM, Burke TF.  Health and Human Rights, Volume 12, 135-137. 2010.

Trafficking experiences and violence victimization of sex-trafficked young women in Cambodia.” McCauley HL, Decker MR, Silverman JG. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Volume 110, Issue 3, 266-7. 2010.

Understanding human trafficking in the United States.” Logan TK, Walker R, Hunt G. Trauma Violence Abuse, Volume 10, Issue 1, 3-30. 2010.

Prior to 2010 

“Women trafficked into prostitution: Determinants, human rights and health needs.” Gajic-Veljanoski, O., & Stewart, D. Transcultural Psychiatry, 44(3), 338-58. 2007.

“The impact of trafficking on children: psychological and social policy perspectives.” Rafferty, Y. Child Dev Perspect. 2008; 2(1): 13 18.

“Mental health of female survivors of human trafficking in Nepal.” Tsutsumi, A., Izutsu,T., Poudyal, A.K., Kato, S., Marui, E. Soc Sci Med. 66(8): 1841 7. April 2008.

“Trafficking in women: Conceptualizing and measuring health risks and consequences.” Zimmerman, C. Dissertation for PhD in Health Policy Unit. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: London.(2004).

“Migration, sexual exploitation, and women’s health: a case report from a community health center.” Miller, E. et al. Violence Against Women.13(5):486 –97. 2007.

“Human trafficking: implications for the role of the advanced practice forensic nurse.”. Cole H. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc.;14(6):462-70. Jan. 2009

“The high cost of human trafficking”. Moynihan, B. ;2(2):100-1. Summer 2006

The health of trafficked women: a survey of women entering post-trafficking services in Europe.” Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Yun K, Gajdadziev V,  Guzun N,  Tchomorova M, et al. American Journal of Public Health, Volume98, 55-59. 2008.

Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.” Barrows J. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 101, Issue 5, 521-4. 2008.

Imprisoned Cuban Health Workers.” Stephenson, J. JAMA, Volume 291, Issue 19, 2309. 2004.

Is trafficking a health issue?” Beyrer C. Lancet, Volume 363, No 9408. 2004.

Modern Slavery a Hidden Crime in the US.” Cole, T. B. . JAMA, Volume 294, Issue 5, 541-542. 2005.

Sex trafficking in Nepal: survivor characteristics and long-term outcomes.” Crawford M, Kaufman MR. Violence Against Women, Volume 14, Issue 8, 905-16.

Slavery today.” Editors. Lancet, Volume 361, 2093. 2003.

Stolen Smiles: The Physical & Psychological Health Consequences of Women and Adolescents Trafficked in Europe.” Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., Yun, K., Roche, B., Morison, L., Watts, C. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2006.

Trafficking and Health.” Busza J, Castle S, Diarra A. BMJ, Volume 328 1369–1371. 2008.

Tuberculosis and HIV: a global menace exacerbated via sex trafficking.” Dharmadhikari AS, Gupta J, Decker MR, Raj A, Silverman JG.  International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 13, 543-546. 2009.

Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.” Watts, C., Zimmerman, C. Lancet, Volume 359, 1232-1237. 2002.